Oil shale is the rock from which shale oil is extract ed. It may also include varied admixtures of biologically higher forms of plant debris that depend on the depositional environment and geographic position. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission requires oil companies to report with reasonable certainty the volume of reserves in wells that are profitable at … The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Fossil shell and bone fragments composed of phosphatic and carbonate minerals, although of organic origin, are excluded from the definition of organic matter used herein and are considered to be part of the mineral matrix of the oil shale. Importantly, unconventional plays account for more than 50 percent of remaining U.S. oil reserves, with Texas alone holding more than 60 billion barrels of recoverable oil in shale plays. Artem Abramov, head of shale research at Rystad, said production would remain between 11.5m b/d and 12m b/d at $40 a barrel. The Bakken Field in North Dakota and Montana is the largest producing shale oil reserve. Public domain.). If the oil shale is heated to a high enough temperature, as may be the case if the oil shale were deeply buried, the organic matter may thermally decompose to form oil and gas. Uranium, vanadium, zinc, alumina, phosphate, sodium carbonate minerals, ammonium sulfate, and sulfur are some of the potential byproducts. More information on Australia oil shale. The technique was subsequently standardized as the American Society for Testing and Materials Method D-3904-80 (1984). Cannel coal is brown to black oil shale composed of resins, spores, waxes, and cutinaceous and corky materials derived from terrestrial vascular plants together with varied amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. To counteract the oil price impact and, at the same time, be able to develop all reserves, the country’s goal aims at reducing operating costs. Oil shales range widely in organic content and oil yield. SHALE OIL AND SHALE GAS POTENTIAL IN COLOMBIA. There is an estimated 2 trillion barrels of oil buried beneath parts of Colorado, Utah and Wyoming. A deposit of oil shale having economic potential is generally one that is at or near enough to the surface to be developed by open-pit or conventional underground mining or by in-situ methods. Today, we are producing ~87 Bcf/d, which is a whopping 30% higher than the 67 … Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data, spatial and tabular datasets, fischer assays and well logs, http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-069/dds-069-y/, http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-069/dds-069-bb/, http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-069/dds-069-ddb/. Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. Small amounts of plant resins and waxes also contribute to the organic matter. If the size of the resource is expressed only in volumetric units (barrels, liters, cubic meters, and so on), the density of the shale oil must be known or estimated to convert these values to metric tons. The hydrocarbons in oil shale can be used as an alternative to petroleum or natural gas. To be a dominant player in oil world one needs more than oil. The Green River oil-shale deposits in western United States and a number of the Tertiary lacustrine deposits in eastern Queensland, Australia, are lamosites. Texas alone holds more than 60 billion barrels of shale oil according to this new data. In areas where the rocks have been subjected to complex folding and faulting or have been intruded by igneous rocks, the geothermal maturity of the oil shale should be evaluated for proper determination of the economic potential of the deposit. Argentina’s shale oil reserves – 16.2 billion barrels (60 per cent) – are also one of the largest in the world. The recent successful development of a tight oil play in the Eocene-age informal Uteland Butte member of the lacustrine Green River Formation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, using modern horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques has spurred a renewed interest in the tight oil potential of lacustrine rocks. Early attempts to determine the total size of world oil-shale resources were based on few facts, and estimating the grade and quantity of many of these resources were speculative, at best. Within his three-fold grouping of oil shales (terrestrial, lacustrine, and marine), Hutton (1991) recognized six specific oil-shale types: cannel coal, lamosite, marinite, torbanite, tasmanite, and kukersite. about its oil and gas reserves. Click on a pin on the map to see more information. The crude oil ranking is led by the U.S. (78.2 billion barrels), Russia (74.5 billion) and China (32.2 billion). Oil Shale Reserves. An in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado was competed in 2010. However, this method can pose a problem with respect to oil shale, because the reflectance of vitrinite may be depressed by the presence of lipid-rich organic matter. It commonly occurs as an organic groundmass with fine-grained mineral matter. The availability and price of petroleum ultimately effect the viability of a large-scale oil-shale industry. Oil world needs a new word like ready reserves, defined as the amount of oil that can be lifted profitably at current prices. Also, oil-shale deposits in Jordan (locations after Jaber and others, 1997; and, Hamarneh, 1998). Other minor components in lamosite include vitrinite, inertinite, telalginite, and bitumen. The oil shale deposits are in three structural and sedimentary basins that have been recently assessed: 2010 Piceance Basin in western Colorado 2010 Uinta Basin in eastern Utah and western Colorado 2011 Greater Green River Basin in southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado Morocco: Oil-shale deposits in Morocco (locations after Bouchta, 1984). U.S. gains increased at least 100,000 barrels per day for 10 of the last 16 months. Commercial grades of oil shale, as determined by their yield of shale oil, ranges from about 100 to 200 liters per metric ton (l/t) of rock. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. For much of the 20th century, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves served as a contingency source of fuel for the Nation's military. Utah’s oil-shale deposits are located in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah. Argentina: 802 tcf - In July 2013 Chevron and YPF put pen to paper on a deal worth $1.2 billion to … … Today, few, if any deposits can be economically mined and processed for shale oil in competition with petroleum. In cases where the density of the shale oil is unknown, a value of 0.910 is assumed for estimating resources. http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-069/dds-069-y/, Mercier, T.J., Johnson, R.C., Brownfield, M.E., and Self, J.G., 2010, In-Place Oil Shale Resources Underlying Federal Lands in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-2010-3041, 4 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3041/, Johnson, R.C., Mercier, T.J., Brownfield, M.E., Pantea, M.P., and Self, J.G., 2009, Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3012, 6 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2009/3012/, Uinta Basin, Colorado and Utah 2010 Assessment. The grade of a deposit is variously expressed in U.S. or Imperial gallons of shale oil per short ton (gpt) of rock, liters of shale oil per metric ton (l/t) of rock, barrels, short or metric tons of shale oil, kilocalories per kilogram (kcal/kg) of oil shale, or gigajoules (GJ) per unit weight of oil shale. Other products that can be made from oil shale include specialty carbon fibers, adsorbent carbons, carbon black, bricks, construction and decorative blocks, soil additives, fertilizers, rock wool insulating material, and glass. This appraisal of world oil-shale resources is far from complete. One technique is to observe the changes in color of the organic matter in samples collected from varied depths in a borehole. The Bakken Field in North Dakota and Montana is the largest producing shale oil reserve. No data point selected. Bituminite, on the other hand, is largely amorphous, lacks recognizable biologic structures, and weakly fluoresces under blue light. Such deposits are generally widespread covering hundreds to thousands of square kilometers, but they are relatively thin, often less than about 100 m. Torbanite, tasmanite, and kukersite are related to specific kinds of algae from which the organic matter was derived; the names are based on local geographic features. The Fischer assay method does not determine the total available energy in an oil shale. Marinite is a gray to dark gray to black oil shale of marine origin in which the chief organic components are lamalginite and bituminite derived chiefly from marine phytoplankton. Oil shale is a rock that contains significant amounts of organic material in the form of kerogen. The field is roughly the size of West Virginia and, as of December 2012, produced 770,000 barrels of oil a day. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer assay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The gross heating value of oil shales on a dry-weight basis ranges from about 500 to 4,000 kilocalories per kilogram (kcal/kg) of rock. Rankings for natural gas proved reserves from shale in 2018. Saline minerals have been extensively leached by groundwater, and the original... A range of geological parameters relevant to mining oil shale have been examined for the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, and Uinta Basin, Utah, using information available in the U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment database. Oil shale is a sedimentary rock. The average breakeven price of oil has fallen 4 percent (or $2 per barrel) over the past year, to $50 per barrel, according to the latest Dallas Fed Energy Survey. Iran - 155 billion barrels. Others have suggested a limit as low as 25 l/t. This formation contains the largest oil shale deposits in the world. Vitrinite reflectance is commonly used by petroleum explorationists to determine the degree of geothermal alteration of petroleum source rocks in a sedimentary basin. Events. Israel and Jordan: Deposits of oil shale in Israel (locations after Minster, 1994). Enlarge map. The field has layers of dense, oil-bearing rock about two miles underground. The refined products can be used for the same purposes as those derived from crude oil. Most of the organic matter is insoluble in ordinary organic solvents; therefore, it must be decomposed by heating to release such materials. This page accesses data for Oil Shale Assessments of PIceance, Uinta and Green River Basins. Mining oil shale can be either surface mining or in situ retorting. By comparison, the heating value of lignitic coal ranges from 3,500 to 4,600 kcal/kg on a dry, mineral-free basis (American Society for Testing Materials, 1966). China, Russia, Syria, Thailand, and Turkey: Other countries with oil shale. This NRG Expert Global Oil Reserves and Shale Oil market research report provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of the global shale oil market. Oil-shale lands that could be mined may be preempted by present land usage such as population centers, parks, and wildlife refuges. More information on United States oil shale. Enlarge map. http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-069/dds-069-bb/, Johnson, R.C., Mercier, T.J., Brownfield, M.E., and Self, J.G., 2010, Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010-3010, 4 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3010/, Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming and Colorado 2011 Assessment. For US, more than 50% of remaining oil reserves is unconventional shale oil. Any technology to produce shale oil includes mining, heat treatment—also known as retorting—to extract the oil, and oil upgrading. Shale has huge competition to fill remaining oil demand. 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